SALSA 1994




 

(SOLD OUT, .PDFs not available)


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Alves, Julio
Conflict Talk: the Reconstruction of Experience through Narrative among Portuguese Boys.

Barrett, Rusty
The Markedness Model and Style Switching: Evidence from African American Drag Queens.

Berman, Laine
Frame Analysis and the Urban-Rural Rift in Javanese Society.

Besnier, Niko
The Gendering of Nukulaelae Literacy Practice.

Blyth, Carl
"C'est bon, ca!": Conventional Displays of Affect in French.

Chen, Lilly Lee
A Matter of Face: Some Aspects of Orientation in Time and Space in Chinese.

Cherry, Suzanne
Telling Stories/Revealing Selves: Narratives in the Composition Classroom.

Doyle, Hope N
The Negotiation of Language Accommodation among Teens in Barcelona.

Freeman, Rebecca D
Competing Discourses in Student Accounts: Micro-level Reflections of Macro-level Societal Tensions.

Fox, Aaron
The Redneck Women's 'Reverse': Language and Gender in American Working-Class Verbal Art.

Hancock, Ian
Texas Afro-Seminole: Old Creole or New?

Henderson, Anita
Compliments, Compliment Responses, and Politeness in an African American Community.

Hormann, Chris
Putting Identity Theory to Work: Operationalizing Le Page's Model .

Lefkowitz, Daniel
The Negotiation of Context in the Sociolinguistic Interview: Intonational Variation in Israeli Hebrew.

Manning, Paul
"Social" Deixis and Social Change in North Wales.

Maschler, Yael
Iconic Contrasts in Hebrew-English Bilingual Conversation.

Mendoza-Denton, Norma
"Oyes, Tu!": Linguistic Stereotyping as Stance and Alliance.

Merlan, Francesca
Indigenous Story Genres in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Myers-Scotton, Carol
"What does a speaker want?": Explanations for Linguistic Choices in Interpersonal Interactions.

Rumsey, Alan
Parallelism and Pairing in the New Guinea Highlands.

Satch, Akira
Ambiguity in Reported Speech in Japanese Narrative Discourse.

Sherzer, Joel
Your Friend is Pissing Standing Up: Kuna Positional Suffixes in Grammatical Discourse, Poetic, and Socio-Cultural Context.

Shrestha, Uma
Sociolinguistic Behavior of Udas Newars in Kathmandu City.

Sunaoshi, Yukako
Your Boss is Your "Mother": Japanese Women's Construction of an Authoritative Position in the Workplace.

Walters, Keith
Closing Remarks.

Woolard, Kathyrn
Gender, Adolescent Peer Groups, and the Bilingual Repertoire in Barcelona.


"What does a speaker want?": Explanations for Linguistic Choices in Interpersonal Interactions
Carol Myers-Scotton, University of South Carolina

No abstract available

The Negotiation of Language Accommodation among Teens in Barcelona
Hope N. Doyle, University of Colorado at Denver

The will to accommodate socially on the part of Barcelona youths is perhaps most fully expressed in their will to accommodate linguistically. The analysis of speech accommodation in this study relies in part on second language acquisition motivation research and is largely qualitative, though frequencies of responses are discussed. Perhaps the most overt of all speech accommodation, code switching, is interlocutor dependent in Catalonia, and so questions of identity and ethnicity move to the fore. The findings indicate that Catalan is seen as an additive ethnic feature for the majority of subjects, while Castilian is at times perceived as subtracted inasmuch as it suppresses Catalan language and the identity it represents.

Iconic Contrasts in Hebrew-English Bilingual Conversation
Yael Maschler, Hebrew University of Jerusalem & Halfa University

Based on analysis of over 20 hours of audiotaped Hebrew-English bilingual conversation, this study concerns two types of discourse contrast in codeswitching situations. The study illustrates the abundance and variety of Hebrew contrastive discourse markers compared with the English ones in the data, thus providing further grammatical evidence supporting previous studies which argue for relatively high tolerance for disagreement in Israeli discourse (Katriel 1986, Maschler in press). The study also concludes that the expression of semantic contrast via language alteration generally overrides the motivation to separate the discourse from its metalingual frame.

The Markedness Model and Style Switching: Evidence from African American Drag Queens
Rusty Barrett, UT Austin

This paper explores the possibility of using Myers-Scotton's (1988, 1993) Markedness Model for bi/multilingual code switching to study monolingual style switching. Evidence supporting the applicability of the Markedness Model is provided from a study of style switching in the speech of African American drag queens (African American gay men who cross dress in public).

Compliments, Compliment Responses, and Politeness in an African American Community
Anita Henderson, University of Kansas

Based on fieldwork carried out in East St. Louis, Illinois, with African-American speakers, this study is an analysis of compliment behavior in a politeness framework. Following Brown and Levinson (1987), this analysis illuminates how concepts of politeness determine culturally appropriate compliment behavior by (1) assessing appropriate expression of face wants via cultural beliefs, (2) establishing expectations of responses via adjacency pairs, and (3) rank-ordering responses via preference organization. This study provides both a pragmatic analysis of compliments and compliment responses in African-American English and a model of complimenting behavior based on politeness theory.

Frame Analysis and the Urban-Rural Rift in Javanese Society
Laine Berman, Georgetown University

This study explores the effects of modernization in the developing world and the ways in which it is altering local identities in Java. These recorded conversational data illustrate the miscommunication that is growing in dissonance and frequency as it offers an intimate glimpse of diverse stances and world views that currently collide within a community previously acclaimed for its elegance and harmony. I analyze talk between two people from the same rural village but whose unequal access to modernizing influences has divided them. I locate the discursive features of this disagreement to see how they may represent a new concept of modern Javanese identity.

Conflict Talk: the Reconstruction of Experience through Narrative among Portuguese Boys
Julio Alves, Smith College

Urban, working-class Portuguese boys regularly narrate their street conflicts in the peer group. In doing so, they collectively decipher the lines of conflict and power in their community. These narratives are more than simple retellings, however. They transform the events to suit the collective interests of the working-class. They are yet another example of the way social relationships are collectively constructed through talk. This paper is a textual analysis of the language and discourse structure of five personal experience narratives about street conflicts between working-class and non-working class (middle-class, Gypsy) boys.

Indigenous Story Genres in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea
Francesca Merlan, Sydney University and Indiana Universit

The paper discusses indigenously recognized story types in the Nebilyer Valley, Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea, focusing on kange and temani. Though there has been recent suggestion for a neighboring area of the Southern Highlands (LeRoy 1985) that a similar pair may be understood to differ as 'literature' and 'history' (or fiction and non-fiction), no such 'truth value' criterion adequately captures the Nebilyer distinction as locally understood. The paper concentrates on discussion of the texutal strategies which distinguish kange and temani, especially differences in the resources of framing, realization of character, and socio-spatial employment.

Your Friend is Pissing Standing Up: Kuna Positional Suffixes in Grammatical Discourse, Poetic, and Socio-Cultural Context
Joel Sherzer, UT Austin

In the Kuna language, four verbal suffixes indicate the position of the subject of an utterance, in conjunction with expressing ongoing activity. They signify 'horizontal,' 'vertical,' 'sitting,' and 'perched.' In addition to their grammatical and semantic function, these suffixes have an important function in verbal art and play, as well as in metaphorical and symbolic expression, in both everyday and formal/ritual discourse. The study of these suffixes reveals the poetic imagination at the heart of the Kuna language-culture relationship.

Parallelism and Pairing in the New Guinea Highlands
Alan Rumsey, Sydney University and Indiana University

While Jakobson's seminal work on parallelism stresses its universality, recent studies of verbal art have revealed interesting cross-cultural differences regarding its canonical forms and uses. This paper concerns its specific forms and uses in Ku Waru- a Papuan language of Highland New Guinea--which I relate to other aspects of Ku Waru language and culture, especially the local emphasis on pairing as the fundamental form of social organization and action. From a Ku Waru perspective there is no reason to separate parallelism as a specifically linguistic phenomenon from the wider social field in which pairing is practiced.

Texas Afro-Seminole: Old Creole or New?
Ian Hancock, UT Austin

No abstract available

Ambiguity in Reported Speech in Japanese Narrative Discourse
Akira Satch, Georgetown University

Reported speech in Japanese has attracted the attention of scholars because the distinction between direct and indirect speech is said to be blurred. In this paper I describe two types of reported speech which cannot be identified as simply direct or indirect speech in Japanese. Then I argue one type of the "obscure" speech functions as a skillful involvement strategy in Japanese spoken narrative.

"C'est bon, ca!": Conventional Displays of Affect in French
Carl Blyth, UT Austin

Affect, the conventionalized display of emotion or emotional intensity, plays an important role in conversation. In order to interpret a speaker's utterance, interlocutors need to know the affective orientation of the speaker. In fact, interlocutors often respond to the speaker's affect rather than to the prepositional content of the utterance. Affect displays are particularly important to the organization of assessments, the evaluation or judgment of entities and events. It is shown that assessments in informal French conversation are characterized by particular patterns of interaction and by particular linguistic structures. Data informing this study come from two corpora of spontaneous conversational discourse including Canadian and European varieties of French.

A Matter of Face: Some Aspects of Orientation in Time and Space in Chinese
Lilly Lee Chen, Rice University

The notion of face in Chinese is important in both social interaction and the orientation of time and space. The bi-directional concept of Time as expressed by front-back, and go-come for both past and future are explainable in terms of face as contained in the metaphors of queue and walking. Queue expresses the prior-subsequent contrast and has the basic meaning of priority (predecessor, and thus past). Walking is for facing the future. Left-right and front-back spatial orientation is based on the (construed) face (e.g.- the front door) of the referent (e.g.- a house).

Telling Stories/Revealing Selves: Narratives in the Composition Classroom
Suzanne Cherry, Texas A & M

Teachers use narratives for content-related functions (Strodt-Lopez 1987, 1993), such as examples, explanations, expansion of ideas, and transitions between tasks. Teachers also use narratives for social and rhetorical functions: to interest their audience; to entertain their audience; to fill in 'dead air' space while students work at the blackboard; to be humorous; to identify with their audience; and to build their authority, to counteract or undermine their authority role. In short, narratives are rhetorical strategies for creating and establishing the teacher's persona. Teacher and student perspectives of these narratives, however, do not always agree, perhaps because of the social context of the classroom and perhaps because of the teacher's persona.

"Oyes, Tu!": Linguistic Stereotyping as Stance and Alliance
Norma Mendonza-Denton, Stanford University

This study will examine the reproduction of ethnic/linguistic stereotypes in the discourse of Latinos in a high school in Northern California, highlighting the strategic use of these stereotypes in signaling stance and alliance between young people. Within an ethnographic discussion of the multilayered Latino groups in the school, we will analyze one particular interaction to 1) examine the linguistic features involved, and how those are used strategically by the speakers, and 2) track the transmission and acquisition of the stereotype.

Competing Discourses in Student Accounts: Micro-level Reflections of Macro-level Societal Tensions
Rebecca D. Freeman, University of Pennsylvania

Analysis of stories that people tell (Mitchell, 1981) and metaphors that they use (Reddy, 1979; Lakoff, 1980) provides a means of understanding how individuals make sense of and structure their experiences. This paper provides an intertextual analysis (Bakhtin, 1986; Fairclough, 1989; Lemke, 1989) of language minority students' stories, which illustrates the individual students' attempts to reconcile conflicting messages they receive about the kind of person they should be, and reflect macro-level US societal tensions between assimilation on the one hand and cultural pluralism on the other.

Your Boss is Your "Mother": Japanese Women's Construction of an Authoritative Position in the Workplace
Yukako Sunaoshi, UT Austin

This work analyzes how two Japanese female managers manipulate language when giving directives to their subordinates. First, directives used by the two women are analyzed and compared with one of Smith's strategies (1992), the Motherese Strategy, and directives used by Japanese mothers to children in actual conversations. Second, other evidence in discourse that appears to help the women create their mother-like position is analyzed. The results suggest that the women's choice of directive forms and theirinte ractions with the subordinates are helping them construct a mother-like and ultimately an authoritative position. The two women are maximizing their power by exploiting the linguistic resources available to them, rather than "talking like men."

The Gendering of Nukulaelae Literacy Practices
Niko Besnier, Yale University

While both women and men on Nukulaelae Atoll (Polynesia) partake in a similar range of literacy practices, gender plays an important role in defining literacy in this community. The link between gender and literacy resides in such factors as the relative salience of particular gendered emotions and the claim to authority inherent in specific literacy practices. The gendering of literacy in this community (and, I propose, in other societies) is thus intrinsically dependent on the particular social practice in which literacy is produced and used. It is also semiotically complex and indexical, which allows for leakage and multiple interpretations.

The Redneck Women's 'Reverse': Language and Gender in American Working-Class Verbal Art
Aaron Fox, UT Austin

This paper investigates the construction of models of gender identity in rural white working-class ("redneck") verbal art. I analyze redneck women's "reverses"-- i.e., framed performances in which women enact "male" roles and men perform female roles--and examine as well how certain performers create ambiguous genders for their characters. I show how redneck women particularly stereotype male discourse topics, prosodic structures, and paralinguistic gestures. These performances simultaneously critically denaturalize "ordinary" hegemonic relations encoded in gendered speech styles and performatively and affirmatively "renaturalize" the same gendered division of discourse as a positive assertion of redneck cultural identity.

Gender, Adolescent Peer Groups, and the Bilingual Repertoire in Barcelona
Kathyrn Woolard, UC San Diego

No Abstract Available

Putting Identity Theory to Work: Operationalizing Le Page's Model
Chris Hormann, UT Austin

While offering us an elegant heuristic for thinking about issues of language and identity, Le Page's hypothesis and its riders (Le Page and Tabouret-Keller, 1985) are extremely difficult to operationalize and thus very few researchers have made an attempt to utilize identity theory for practical research purposes. I examine the problems inherent in operationalizing the theory and present parts of my own questionnaire, designed to elicit data on the subjects' linguistic behavior and on variables like identification with the target group, feedback, access, subject, motivation, language analysis and modification abilities, proposing an effective instrument to measure identity theory's parameters.

The Negotiation of Context in the Sociolinguistic Interview: Intonational Variation in Israeli Hebrew
Daniel Lefkowitz, UT Austin

No Abstract Available

"Social" Deixis and Social Change in North Wales
H. Paul Manning, University of Chicago

No Abstract Available

Sociolinguistic Behavior of Udas Newars in Kathmandu City
Uma Shrestha, Western Oregon State University

No Abstract Available

Closing Remarks
Keith Walters, UT Austin

No Abstract Available