SALSA IX: 2001




 



Texas Linguistic Forum Vol. 44, No. 2.
(2002) Austin: Texas Linguistic Forum
Kate Henning, Nicole Netherton,
and Leighton C. Peterson, eds.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


Albert, Steve J
On the Evaluation of Reported Speech by French Adolescents: Ouais as Discourse Marker
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Brody, Michal
Invoking the Ancestors: Sapir, Bugs Bunny, and the Popol Vuh
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Bucholtz, Mary
Play, Identity, and Linguistic Representation in the Performance of Accent
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Donath, Lori
Unraveling the Confederate Flag: Discourse Frameworks as Ideological Constraints
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Duranti, Alessandro
Performance and Encoding of Agency in Historical-Natural Languages
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Dyer, Judy and Alicia Wassink
Taakin Braad and Talking Broad: Changing Indexicality of Phonetic Variants in Two Contact Situations
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Kang, Yoonhee
Endearing or En-daring?: The Pragmatics of Love in a Performance of Honey-Collecting Chants among the Petalangan of Indonesia
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Korobov, Neill
"Alex is a NICE kid": The Socialization Functions of Teasing for Adolescent Males
AbstractArticle (PDF)

McConvell, Patrick
Mix-Im-Up Speech and Emergent Mixed Languages in Indigenous Australia
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Meares, Mary
Secrecy Versus Education: Cultural Maintenance and the Dilemma of Educating Non-Indians about the Pueblos
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Michael, Lev
Reported Speech, Experience, and Knowledge in an Amazonian Society: The Nanti of Southeastern Peru
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Monk, Sandra L
Poetic Structures of an Ethnographic Narrative
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Newman, Michael
"I represent me": Identity Construction in a Teenage Rap Crew
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Shaul, David Leedom
In the Last Days of Living Latin: The Dynamic and Realities of Twilight Linguistics
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Sniad, Tamara Shane
"I might not be front desk material": An Analysis of Language Ideologies and Hospitality Training
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Su, Hsi-Yao
Code-switching between Mandarin and Taiwanese in Three Telephone Conversations: The Negotiation of Interpersonal Relationships among Bilingual Speakers in Taiwan
AbstractArticle (PDF)

Timm, Lenora A
Transforming Breton: A Case Study in Multiply Conflicting Language Ideologies
AbstractArticle (PDF)


Albert, Steve J
On the Evaluation of Reported Speech by French Adolescents: Ouais as Discourse Marker


Reported speech often serves as an important context for evaluations and assessments of others. In an analysis of naturally occurring speech among students in a suburban Paris secondary school, I consider the ways in which French adolescents (ages 16-19) employ the nonstandard affirmative "ouais" as a prefatory discourse marker in direct reported speech. I argue that the use of this marker serves to signal the banal or predictable nature of the recycled speech that it introduces. As such, "ouais" is frequently found in animations of others who are perceived as representative of negatively evaluated identities and/or ideologies.


Brody, Michal
Invoking the Ancestors: Sapir, Bugs Bunny, and the Popol Vuh


By focusing on Bugs Bunny and selected Looney Tunes, I support the hypothesis that in the current broader culture of the United States, many toons serve the functions of ancestors. Sapir (1915[1991]), describing Nootka and several other cultures, detailed sound changes that occur in specific social contexts, including ritual storytelling; I show how speech features of specific toons follow the same and similar patterns. Secondly, by presenting some salient parallels between the Popol Vuh and Space Jam, a 1996 film starring Bugs Bunny and Michael Jordan, I discuss characteristics that Looney Tunes share with ancestors of the Quiche Maya.


Bucholtz, Mary
Play, Identity, and Linguistic Representation in the Performance of Accent

Scholarship on verbal play and performance has demonstrated the importance of the aesthetic realm for the linguistic study of cultural production and social practice. Such research opens up new avenues for the sociolinguistic inquiry into identity. This paper considers one such site of identity making in performance among science fiction and fantasy fans in Texas. A powerful popular ideology holds that fans lack the basic communicative competence necessary to function socially. Fans are often stigmatized as "nerds" who seek out the alternative realities of speculative fiction to escape social isolation and inadequacy. I focus on a complex verbal performance, a live-action role-playing game, to demonstrate the sociolinguistic competence of fans and to offer anaccount of how identity is linguistically produced on multiple levels.

The focus of the analysis is the performance of a range of accents by players and non-player characters. Accent performance serves several purposes within the game, including bounding the game world, creating characterizations, and displaying interactional stances. In addition, the selection and performance of particular accents ties the game both intertextually to previous enactments of the fantastic and ideologically to specific racial and ethnic categories. Through these multilayered functions, language effects identity at several levels. The performance of accent is therefore part of the broader phenomenon of linguistic representation, a set of processes whereby linguistic forms are assigned social meanings.


Donath, Lori
Unraveling the Confederate Flag: Discourse Frameworks as Ideological Constraints


In this paper I present evidence that Confederate flag discourse is characterized by a framework of assumptions that marginalizes African-American experience and takes as given "white Southern" claims on identity. Lexical items such as "Confederate" and "history" co-occur far more frequntly than parallel associations representing African-American experience. Drawing on Bourdieu, I claim these patterns constitute a framework of norms that shapes and is shaped by participants' linguistic choices. The language of the debate not only reflects how people view their social organization but also reaffirms the social world in place, constraining people from readily thinking of it in other terms.


Duranti, Alessandro
Performance and Encoding of Agency in Historical-Natural Languages


After providing a working definition of agency, I will suggest that there are two mutually constitutive and yet analytically distinct dimensions of agency that are enacted in and through language: performance and representation. In the performance dimension, I distinguish between "ego-affirming" and "context-constituting" agency. In the representation dimension, I concentrate on grammatical framing and discuss two related principles and their implications: (i) all natural languages allow for the representation of agency; (ii) all natural languages allow for the mitigation of agency.


Dyer, Judy and Alicia Wassink
Taakin Braad and Talking Broad: Changing Indexicality of Phonetic Variants in Two Contact Situations


In this paper we consider the changing indexicality of phonological variants in two different contact situations-Corby, England, and Kingston, Jamaica. We suggest that similar sociolinguistic phenomena may be observed in both places. Using a language ideology framework, acoustic and auditory phonetic data are interpreted through respondents' own metalinguistic comments about their dialect. This socially embedded interpretation of the data reveals that in both Corby and Kingston one phonological variant may in fact index distinct and different identities for speakers in the respective communities, thereby questioning the discreteness of "independent" variables, such as place or social class in sociolinguistic studies.


Kang, Yoonhee
Addressing the Invisible World: Indexicality, Iconicity, and the Cultural Concept of Self in Belian, a Petalangan Healing Ritual in Indonesia

This paper analyzes a performance of the Belian, a shamanic healing ritual practiced by the Petalangan people in Indonesia to discuss the tensions between situatedness (contingency) and transcendence (analogy) of ritual speech. I analyze the usage of address and referential terms and personal pronouns, by which a shaman mediates the present context and the supernatural world during the performance. My concerns focus on the interrelations between indexicality and iconicity of the Belian performance and the importance of the Petalangan concept of the 'relational' self, which mediates 'contextualization' and 'entextualization' processes of the ritual.


Korobov, Neill
"Alex is a NICE kid": The Socialization Functions of Teasing for Adolescent Males


This paper advances a sociolinguistic analysis of "teasing" and "gossiping" within focus group interactions among adolescent males (ages 14-15). In line with recent linguistic anthropological work, I argue that the meanings of different linguistic strategies are not only relative to the specific interactions, but are also quite precarious as indexes of varying levels of solidarity among the adolescent males. Using Positioning Analysis, I demonstrate how subject positions are made available and linguistically indexed. The resulting argument stands as relatively novel, sociolinguistic contribution in ongoing explorations of how micro-discursive positions constitute gendered identities.


McConvell, Patrick
Mix-Im-Up Speech and Emergent Mixed Languages in Indigenous Australia


The numbers of speakers of Australian Indigenous languages are plunging, but some languages are changing radically. Two such languages are examined here: Tiwi and Gurindji. Tiwi in its traditional form is highly headmarking and polysynthetic. Modern Tiwi has retained some of the old verb morphology but adopted English nominal grammar. Traditional Gurindji is a language of dependentmarking type. Young people have adopted verbal grammar from the local English-based creole, but retained Gurindji case-marking on nominals, the obverse of the situation with Tiwi. The origins of this new mixed language can be traced to the code-switching speech of the previous generation.


Meares, Mary
Secrecy Versus Education: Cultural Maintenance and the Dilemma of Educating Non-Indians about the Pueblos


The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultures, specifically the Pueblo Indian cultures, can be maintained in the presence of outside cultural influence. In the last 400 years, Pueblo culture has been dramatically changed by the influx of first Hispanic and later Anglo cultural influences. Analysis of current programs to maintain culture reveal a foundation of building cultural identity as well as language skills and conformity to group cohesion principles. Non-Pueblo individuals were found to have a limited role in cultural preservation, however the education of non-Pueblo people has the potential to be both a constructive and destructive force.


Michael, Lev
Reported Speech, Experience, and Knowledge in an Amazonian Society: The Nanti of Southeastern Peru

This paper describes and analyzes the use of reported speech by speakers of Nanti, an Arawakan language of southeastern Peru. It seeks to understand the importance of reported speech in the Nanti communicative repertoire, and its relationship to broader communicative, ideational, and political patterns. Based on ethnographic data, I argue that Nanti speech reporting practices realize a linguistic/ideational complex that links communicative practice to conceptualizations of experience, knowledge, and the relationship between experience and knowledge. On the basis of comparative analyses with other societies, I also advance hypotheses about the cross-cultural properties of reported speech as a social practice.


Monk, Sandra L
Poetic Structures of an Ethnographic Narrative

This presentation analyzes narrative sections of healthrelated interview transcripts. My purpose here is to highlight the poetic structures they substantiate: this includes blocking text into verses, stanzas, and refrains, and using thematic parallelism. Although a familiar literary resource, poetics has only recently been applied to casual discourse. The present analysis will document the occurrence of poetic styles in impromptu interview speech and hypothesize the social functions of such styles: significantly, that these poetic structures are textual markers which have a social function much like other stylized verbal forms.


Newman, Michael
"I represent me": Identity Construction in a Teenage Rap Crew

This ethnography explores how members of a rap 'crew' of inner-city teenagers use language to construct their various ethnic and local identities and their common identities as hip-hoppers and males. Crew members combine openminded discourses on ethnicity, national origin, and neighborhood as potential sources of pride but not exclusiveness with unapologetically sexist views. I argue that rather than analyzing these discourses as contradictory, they are better understood as outgrowths of a single coherent meritocratic and individualistic worldview. As such, these teens use traditional American capitalist discourses to respond to the dominant discourses of dehumanization they face as minority youth.


Shaul, David Leedom
In the Last Days of Living Latin: The Dynamic and Realities of Twilight Linguistics

"Language death" rules out possible continued uses as a heritage language. Language efforts typical of Native American languages (preservation/revival efforts, curriculum, technology use) are hampered not only by English use, but also by no desire for English-like functions in the traditional variety (because of emotional and religious factors). In the 1960s, Monegasque (traditional in Monaco) was in a similar situation; it went through a period of "preservation" to become a heritage language used in important, vital public contexts. The Monegasque model is an alternative to the Hawaiian model of total revival as an educational medium.


Sniad, Tamara Shane
"I might not be front desk material": An Analysis of Language Ideologies and Hospitality Training

Many of the limitations minorities face arguably involve differing ideologies about how and where certain language forms can be used and what their use indexes. This paper looks at the language ideologies that manifest in an adult education program aimed at training African Americans for jobs in the hospitality industry and how these ideologies relate to the students' employment opportunities in customer service positions. By looking closely at how and what ideologies are explicitly and implicitly expressed, the local (re)production of certain sociocultural attitudes and their effect on the employment opportunities of the speakers may be better understood and addressed.


Su, Hsi-Yao
Code-switching between Mandarin and Taiwanese in Three Telephone Conversations: The Negotiation of Interpersonal Relationships among Bilingual Speakers in Taiwan

This study examines the code-switching used in three telephone conversations in Taiwan and analyzes on the microlevel how the bilingual Taiwanese speakers involved use code-switching as a resource to define interpersonal relationships and achieve specific communicative goals. The three conversations share a similar "face-threatening" goal, and thus become particularly interesting and resourceful locations for examining how bilinguals manipulate the two codes to perform their communicative tasks. Social factors such as generation and urbanity also play a role in the employment of code-switching in the three conversations.


Timm, Lenora A
Transforming Breton: A Case Study in Multiply Conflicting Language Ideologies

This study describes a complex and contested set of efforts by mid 20th-c. language strategists in Brittany to modernize and standardize the Breton language in a calculated attempt to hoist Breton to the rank of a world language. It considers accomplishments and setbacks of those efforts, and reactions to them by the traditional Breton-speaking population. It is shown that the language strategists were motivated by conceptions of language refracted through a lens colored by strong notions concerning language and identity and language and political economy. The conclusion considers the possible implications for the perpetuation of Breton as one of Europe's 'small' languages.